Alfred Maurer (1868 - 1932)
Landscape (Purple Tree), c. 1925
Oil on board
21 5/8 x 18 inches
Signed at lower center: A. H. Maurer
Erhard Weyhe, Weyhe Gallery, New York
by descent to Gertrude Dennis, his daughter
[Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York]
Private collection, New Haven, Connecticut
Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York, 1999-2000, Alfred Maurer: From Aestheticism to Modernism, no. 44
Stacey B. Epstein, Alfred Maurer: From Aestheticism to Modernism (1999), pp. 90, 153, illus. pl. 44
Called the first American modernist painter, Alfred Maurer began as a traditionalist and then explored many styles including Impressionism, Tonalism, Fauvism and Cubism. He developed a rich, brushy, tonal style, influenced by Frans Hals and Diego Velasquez, as well as William Merritt Chase, John Singer Sargent and James Whistler. In 1901, his painting titled "An Arrangement," done in the rich, impressionist, tonal style of Whistler won first prize at the Carnegie International Exhibition. In the 1920s, he focused on still life and figural works, many of them Cubist in style.
He was born in New York City, the son of Louis Maurer who was a commercial artist for Currier & Ives. Young Alfred learned commercial art from working in the same lithographic business as his father. In 1884, he enrolled in the National Academy of Design and in 1897, left for Paris where he stayed until 1914 and studied briefly at the Academie Julian.
Between 1905 and 1907, Maurer abandoned his tonal style, and a promising career as a traditionalist, and developed instead a brilliant Fauvist approach to color and form. His conversion may have been prompted by his friendship with Gertrude and Leo Stein. He was using high-keyed colors in place of muted tonalities, strong contracts of color and more simplified, angular schemes of figural representation.
Between 1905 and 1907, Maurer, influenced by his friendship with expatriates and avant-garde focused Gertrude and Leo Stein as well as Henri Matisse and Paul Cezanne, moved away from Tonalism to Fauvism, and for this reason, some have called him the first modernist American painter.
He returned to New York City and circulated among most of the young modernist painters of the city and seemed much influenced by the paintings of Marsden Hartley and Arthur Dove.
He exhibited at the Armory Show of 1913, when modernist art was first widely exhibited in America, and the Society of Independent Artists beginning 1917 until his death in 1932. In 1932, he committed suicide, which some attributed to his alienation from popular acceptance and from his stressful relationship with his father who lived to be one-hundred years old and died a few months before his son.